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Dapagliflozin is a groundbreaking medication that targets the treatment of type 2 diabetes, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. This FDA-approved drug functions by inhibiting the reabsorption of glucose in the kidneys, thereby reducing blood sugar levels. The typical dosage starts at 5 mg daily, increasing to 10 mg based on patient tolerance and medical need. Patients are advised to take it consistently at the same time each day, with or without food. As with any medication, following safety guidelines is crucial; Dapagliflozin has significant risks, including ketoacidosis and dehydration, requiring users to monitor their health closely and consult regularly with healthcare professionals.

Product Overview

Dapagliflozin is an FDA-approved medication primarily used for managing type 2 diabetes, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and chronic kidney disease. As the active ingredient in this drug, Dapagliflozin works by inhibiting the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in the kidneys. This action prevents the reabsorption of glucose back into the bloodstream, facilitating the excretion of excess glucose through urine. This mechanism not only helps lower blood sugar levels but also assists in weight loss and blood pressure reduction, addressing critical aspects of type 2 diabetes management.

Available in tablet form, Dapagliflozin comes in two strengths: 5 mg and 10 mg. The recommended starting dose for patients with type 2 diabetes is 5 mg once daily, which may be increased to 10 mg for enhanced glycemic control if tolerated well. For heart failure and chronic kidney disease, the prescribed dose is typically 10 mg once daily. It’s important to note that Dapagliflozin is not suitable for patients with type 1 diabetes or those undergoing dialysis. The drug’s effectiveness is closely linked to kidney function; hence, its usage involves careful consideration of renal health.

While Dapagliflozin is effective, it carries a boxed warning due to significant risks. One of them is ketoacidosis, a serious condition that can occur if the body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. Other side effects include urinary tract infections, dehydration, and potentially severe conditions like Fournier’s Gangrene. Patients should follow dosing instructions closely, avoid doubling up on missed doses, and store the medication at room temperature, away from moisture and light. Consulting healthcare providers for personalized guidance and adhering to recommended precautions is crucial for safe treatment with Dapagliflozin.

Uses of Dapagliflozin

Targeted treatment

  • Type 2 Diabetes Management
  • Heart Failure Treatment
  • Chronic Kidney Disease


  • Improved Glycemic Control
  • Cardiovascular Health
  • Weight Loss
  • Blood Pressure Reduction
  • Kidney Protection

How to Use Dapagliflozin?


This medication comes in tablet form and has two dosage strengths – 5 mg and 10 mg.

Recommended Dosage for Different Patients

Type 2 Diabetes

  • Start with 5 mg orally once daily.
  • Increase to 10 mg daily for better glycemic control if well-tolerated.
  • Maximum: 10 mg/day.
  • Ensure renal function is adequate (eGFR > 45 mL/min/1.73 m²) for effectiveness.
  • If used with insulin or insulin secretagogues, consider reducing the insulin dose to decrease the risk of hypoglycemia.

Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction

  • Recommended dose: 10 mg orally once daily.
  • Correct any volume depletion before starting therapy.
  • Not suitable for patients with type 1 diabetes.

Chronic Kidney Disease

  • Recommended dose: 10 mg orally once daily.
  • Correct any volume depletion before starting therapy.
  • Avoid in patients with polycystic kidney disease or recent immunosuppressive therapy.
  • Not suitable for patients with type 1 diabetes.

Renal Dose Adjustments

  • For type 2 diabetes control:
      • eGFR ≥ 45 mL/min/1.73 m²: No adjustment needed.
      • eGFR < 45 mL/min/1.73 m²: Not recommended.
  • For other indications:
    • eGFR > 25 mL/min/1.73 m²: No adjustment needed.
    • eGFR < 25 mL/min/1.73 m²: Not recommended for initiation, but existing patients may continue 10 mg/day.

Liver Dose Adjustments

  • Mild to moderate impairment: No adjustment needed.
  • Severe impairment: Use caution; safety and efficacy are not well-studied.

[Note: Remember these recommendations may vary depending on person to person. Discuss it with your doctor, and they’ll customize your dosage accordingly.]

How to Take It?

  • Take Dapagliflozin exactly as prescribed by your healthcare provider. Do not alter the dose or frequency without consulting your doctor.
  • You can take Dapagliflozin with or without food.
  • Swallow the tablet whole with a glass of water. Do not crush, chew, or break the tablet.
  • Try to take Dapagliflozin at the same time each day to maintain consistent blood levels of the medication.
  • Regularly monitor your blood sugar levels as advised by your healthcare provider to ensure the effectiveness of the medication.
  • Drink plenty of fluids during treatment with Dapagliflozin to stay hydrated, especially if you experience side effects like frequent urination.

[Note: Your doctor will decide the right amount for you based on your condition, following guidelines and studies on the drug. They’ll adjust it as needed over time.]

How Does Dapagliflozin Work?

Dapagliflozin works by inhibiting the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in the kidneys. This transporter is responsible for reabsorbing glucose back into the bloodstream. By blocking SGLT2, Dapagliflozin prevents glucose reabsorption, leading to the excretion of excess glucose through urine. This helps lower blood sugar levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes and can also aid in weight loss and blood pressure reduction.

Important Safety Information

Side Effects

Common Side Effects

  • Thirst
  • Back pain
  • Nausea
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
  • Increased urination
  • Genital yeast infections

Serious Side Effects:

  • Ketoacidosis (a serious condition that can occur when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones)
  • Kidney problems
  • Serious urinary tract infections
  • Low blood sugar (when combined with insulin or insulin secretagogues)
  • Necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum (Fournier’s gangrene)
  • Serious allergic reactions (such as anaphylaxis or angioedema)
  • Dehydration and low blood pressure
  • Increased cholesterol levels

[Note: Remember, this list may not cover all possible side effects. Always consult with your healthcare giver for medical advice about side effects.]


Ketoacidosis Risk with Dapagliflozin: This medication significantly increases the risk of ketoacidosis, particularly in patients with type 1 diabetes. It can also occur in those with type 2 diabetes and pancreatic disorders. Fatalities have been reported with the use of SGLT2 inhibitors like Dapagliflozin. Monitoring ketones is advised for those at risk. If ketoacidosis is suspected, stop Dapagliflozin immediately, evaluate, and treat promptly.

Volume Depletion: Dapagliflozin can cause volume depletion that might lead to low blood pressure or temporary kidney function changes. This risk is higher in patients with reduced kidney function, older adults, or those on diuretics. Check hydration and kidney function before starting Dapagliflozin, and monitor for low blood pressure after starting.

Urinary Tract Infections and Pyelonephritis: Dapagliflozin can increase the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs), some of which may be serious. Watch for symptoms and treat UTIs promptly.

Hypoglycemia Risk: When Dapagliflozin is used with insulin or drugs that increase insulin levels, it can increase the risk of low blood sugar. It may be necessary to lower the doses of these medications.

Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Perineum (Fournier’s Gangrene): This rare but life-threatening condition has occurred in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors, including Dapagliflozin. It affects both men and women, potentially leading to hospitalization, surgeries, or death. Watch for symptoms like pain, swelling, redness in the genital or perineal area, fever, or general discomfort. Stop Dapagliflozin and start treatment immediately if suspected.

Genital Mycotic Infections: This medicine can increase the risk of fungal infections in the genital area, especially for those with a history of such infections. Monitor and treat as needed.

Boxed Warnings

  • Increased Risk of Ketoacidosis
  • Risk of Serious Urinary Tract Infections
  • Lower Limb Amputation Risk
  • Not for Treating Type 1 Diabetes


  • Inform your healthcare provider if you have type 1 diabetes or have experienced diabetic ketoacidosis.
  • Disclose any liver problems to your healthcare provider.
  • Mention if you have a history of urinary tract infections or difficulties with urination.
  • If you are scheduled for surgery, discuss with your doctor the appropriate timing to stop and restart Dapagliflozin, as it may need to be temporarily discontinued.
  • Notify your healthcare provider if you are consuming fewer calories or if there are changes in your diet.
  • Share any past or present issues related to your pancreas, including pancreatitis or pancreatic surgery.
  • Inform your healthcare provider if you frequently consume alcohol or engage in binge drinking.


Contraindicated in cases of severe hypersensitivity reactions, such as anaphylaxis or angioedema, marked as 123456. It’s crucial to adhere strictly to your doctor’s guidance. If you have any worries or encounter side effects, consult your healthcare provider.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of Dapagliflozin, take it as soon as you remember. However, if it’s nearly time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and continue with your regular dosing schedule. Do not take two doses of Dapagliflozin simultaneously.

[Note: If you have missed a dose of your medication and are unsure about when to take the next one, immediately consult your doctor or pharmacist.]


An overdose of Dapagliflozin can potentially lead to serious health complications. While specific symptoms of an overdose may vary, they could potentially include dehydration, severe urinary frequency, hypotension (low blood pressure), or electrolyte imbalances. It’s important to treat an overdose of Dapagliflozin as a medical emergency.

[Note: If you consumed more than recommended dose, get medical help right away, or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.]


  • Store Dapagliflozin at room temperature, ideally between 68°F and 77°F (20°C and 25°C).
  • Keep the medication in its original container, tightly closed.
  • Store out of reach of children.
  • Protect from moisture and light; avoid storing in bathrooms or damp areas.
  • Prevent exposure to extreme temperatures or direct sunlight.
  • Always refer to the packaging for any specific storage instructions from the manufacturer.

[Note: Discuss with your healthcare professional about the proper disposal of any unused medicine and any questions you may have regarding its storage.]

Dapagliflozin Interactions

  • Aspirin
  • Metformin
  • Insulin
  • Blood pressure medications
  • Cholesterol-lowering drugs
  • Anticoagulants
  • Antidepressants
  • Vitamins (B12, C, D3)
  • Fish oil
  • Pain relievers (paracetamol)
  • Heart medications (Lantus, Lipitor)
  • Diabetes medications (Janumet, Januvia, Jardiance, Ozempic, Trulicity, Victoza)
  • Liver dysfunction
  • Renal dysfunction
  • Hypotension
  • Infections

[Note: This isn’t a complete list, and there could be other drugs that interact with Dapagliflozin. Make sure to tell your doctor any prescription, over-the-counter medicines, and herbal products you’re taking.]

Dapagliflozin Alternatives

  • Invokana (canagliflozin)
  • Jardiance (empagliflozin)
  • Steglatro (ertugliflozin)
  • Zynquista (sotagliflozin)
  • Remo, Remozen (remogliflozin)

[Note: Your doctor will choose what’s best for you. Don’t use any of these alternative medications without consulting your healthcare provider. Taking them by yourself may cause serious side effects.] 

Quick Tips

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Frequently Asked Questions

Can Dapagliflozin increase the frequency of urination?

Yes, Dapagliflozin may lead to more frequent urination. In clinical studies, approximately 3% to 4% of individuals taking this medication reported increased urination. It works by helping the kidneys remove excess sugar and sodium from the blood, which is then excreted in the urine. It’s important to note that an increased urge to urinate can also be a symptom of a urinary tract infection (UTI), a potential side effect of this medication. If you experience symptoms such as painful or burning urination, foul-smelling urine, more frequent urination, fever, or pain in your lower back or sides, inform your healthcare provider, as these could indicate a UTI.

Can Dapagliflozin be beneficial for heart failure?

Yes. Studies have shown that Dapagliflozin can reduce the risk of hospitalization due to heart failure or cardiovascular death by 26% in individuals with heart failure when included in standard treatment plans for heart failure. It’s important to consult with your healthcare provider to determine if this medication is suitable for your specific situation.

Is it safe to use Dapagliflozin during pregnancy?

No, Dapagliflozin is not recommended for use during the second or third trimesters of pregnancy. Animal studies have indicated that this medication may cause kidney damage in unborn babies. Managing diabetes during pregnancy is crucial, so it’s essential to discuss safe treatment options with your healthcare provider.

Is it safe to take Dapagliflozin while on dialysis?

No, it is not advisable to take Dapagliflozin if you are undergoing dialysis, which is a treatment that filters your blood when your kidneys are not functioning correctly. Although Dapagliflozin can help prevent the progression of kidney issues in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), its safety and efficacy have not been established for those on dialysis. It’s important to consult with your healthcare provider to explore other available treatment options.

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